Exploring the Yucatán Jungle: A Path to Revitalizing Mexico’s Maya Heritage


Venturing beyond the pristine beaches of Yucatán, the expansive Camino del Mayab trail promises to breathe new life into the region’s struggling Maya settlements through immersive jungle expeditions that navigate around lush haciendas and hidden cenotes.

Immersing oneself in the refreshing, crystalline waters after a lengthy trek through the dense Yucatán foliage is an experience beyond words. Encircled by towering cliffs of a cenote—a sacred freshwater well revered by the ancient Maya as a gateway to the afterlife and a site for offerings—the water shimmers in shades of emerald and azure, adorned with sprawling lily pads and the deep-reaching roots of alamo trees that resemble aquatic serpents.

On the inaugural day of my five-day journey along Mexico’s Camino del Mayab—a trail for hikers and cyclists inaugurated in late 2020—I grapple with the sweltering 32°C heat and intense humidity. Despite the allure of the cooling pools, the day’s 11-mile trek beckons before dusk. Traversing a dirt trail bordered by the thick jungle, we arrive at San Antonio Tzacalá, a quaint Maya hamlet encircling the remnants of a 19th-century hacienda. Once vibrant, now reclaimed by nature, the Spanish estate is a tableau of decay: colossal alamo trees sprout from the structure, and invasive vines weave through the solid masonry as if it were delicate lace.

A cenote’s tranquil facade greets us, its cave entrance framed by verdant flora and cascading vines that dip into the serene waters below.

“Yucatán is synonymous with cenotes and haciendas,” declares Cristian Sulub, the youthful 22-year-old mayor of San Antonio Tzacalá, sporting sleek, frameless glasses and a woven hat. A descendant of the Maya and a passionate historian, Cristian warmly welcomes us as we pass through his village. “The cenotes are a testament to our ancestral legacy; the haciendas, a reminder of our colonial past.”

The hacienda at San Antonio Tzacalá stands among the many erected in Yucatán during the henequen boom of the 19th century. Henequen, or sisal, is a fibrous agave indigenous to the Yucatán Peninsula, historically utilized by the Maya to craft ropes, baskets, and fishing nets. However, the mid-19th century saw the Spanish commodify Yucatán’s ‘green gold,’ exporting it to the US and Europe. The Indigenous populace was coerced into laboring on plantations for meager wages, while European landowners amassed fortunes, constructing railroads, factories, and over 300 haciendas throughout Yucatán.

Forged over three years, the 68-mile Camino del Mayab trail was conceived to counteract centuries of colonial subjugation in Yucatán—’Mayab’ being the original name given by the ancient Maya before the Spanish rechristening in the 16th century. Following the Mexican Revolution in the 1910s and the subsequent Great Depression, the henequen industry waned, leading to the abandonment of most haciendas by the 1950s. Yet, discrimination and inequality persisted against the Maya. Presently, opportunities for advanced education, employment, and healthcare remain scarce beyond Mérida and Cancún, compelling numerous Maya individuals to forsake their ancestral villages and customs.

Vibrant archways grace the courtyard of a Mexican hacienda.

“The survival of the Maya village hangs in the balance,” remarks our guide Uri Huesca, guiding us away from the dilapidated hacienda. Uri, a co-founder of EcoGuerreros Yucatán—the environmental group that established and now oversees the Camino del Mayab—expresses, “Our goal is to enable Maya communities to thrive within their native lands, all while imparting their rich history and culture to visitors from across the globe.”

The Camino del Mayab: A Journey Through Maya History and Nature

The Camino del Mayab traces the historic henequen transport paths, connecting 14 Maya communities from the old plantation settlement of Dzoyaxché to the storied Maya metropolis of Mayapan. The trail’s creation was a collaborative effort with the Maya communities, ensuring that 80% of its revenue aids these villages through employment of local guides, utilization of community lands for camping, and savoring meals crafted by local cooks.

As we proceed to Pebá, merely a two-hour stroll from San Antonio Tzacalá, a burst of electric blue and pale orange interrupts the monotonous green—a Yucatán jay, native to the peninsula. Not far ahead, a turquoise-browed motmot perches on an ancient ceiba tree, a bird once used by the Maya to locate water sources.

“Yucatán ranks among Mexico’s regions richest in biodiversity,” Uri informs us, while we observe a Middle American indigo snake nestled beneath a bush adorned with purple flowers. “Yet, it faces imminent threats.”

The state is home to nearly 400 bird species and over 100 mammal species, with many on the brink of extinction. Jaguars, tapirs, and ocelots were once common, but habitat destruction—losing roughly 50,000 acres of jungle each year to agriculture and unlawful logging—has made them scarce.

Environmentalists also criticize the newly inaugurated Tren Maya—a 966-mile railway initiated in December 2023 that slices through the Yucatán jungle—as a hazard to the region’s ecological diversity.

A Maya priest is depicted up close, bestowing a traditional blessing, garbed in white with a red belt and a leather pouch embellished with beads, holding a conch shell.

“The Camino del Mayab’s mission extends beyond preserving Maya culture; it encompasses environmental conservation,” Uri asserts. EcoGuerreros has been instrumental in establishing vast ecological reserves in Yucatán, safeguarded by a network of ejidos—communal lands stewarded by Indigenous groups.

On the following day, Don Octavio, a Pebá native—a slender, aged man marked by furrows on his brow and earth under his nails—leads us through the jungle to Yaxcopoil, a village boasting one of Yucatán’s most intact haciendas. Donned in formal trousers and leather sandals, Don Octavio clears our way with his machete, highlighting therapeutic plants and flowers pollinated by meliponas, stingless bees revered by the Maya for millennia.

Scattered among the greenery are remnants of henequen plants from a plantation where Don Octavio once labored. This plantation outlasted most in Yucatán, shutting down decades after the 1950s. Don Octavio recalls the fair treatment by the owners, which enabled him to remain in his village. “Now, observe,” he gestures towards ruins that once sheltered a Maya household. “The migration to Mérida is relentless. Our village may soon be deserted.”

The majestic ruins of the Temple of Kukulcan at Chichén Itzá bask in the sunlight.

In the days to follow, as we traverse 40 miles from Yaxcopoil to Mayapan, I witness the morning mist dissipate over the jungle, indulge in succulent pulled pork prepared in earthen pits, and enjoy fire-grilled tortillas in Maya abodes, all under a canopy of stars. Yet, the anticipation of swimming in the expansive cenotes remains the highlight of my journey.

A Mystic Finale on the Camino del Mayab

I had envisioned the culmination of my Camino del Mayab adventure atop the majestic Temple of Kukulcan at Mayapan, surveying the path I had traversed, now a tapestry woven through the jungle below. Yet, due to demonstrations challenging the entry costs, the trail’s endpoint was inaccessible. Instead, I find myself beside a cenote near X-Kanchakán, where amidst the sonorous rain, a shaman clad in white invokes the Maya deities. His incantations, articulated in Yucatec Maya, echo over the waters, synchronizing with the thunder’s roar. As his prayer concludes, the rain abates, and the heavens unveil a peculiar silver-violet glow. “A propitious sign,” the shaman proclaims in Spanish. “You are embraced here, voyager.”

The Camino del Mayab’s five-day escorted trek is priced at 12,900 MXN (£605) per individual, encompassing trail lodgings, gastronomic delights, camping essentials, transportation, and entry to both cenotes and haciendas. For those inclined, cycling expeditions are also an option.

Source: National Geographics